Inverse associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) with cigarette smoking, coffee drinking, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use have been reported individually, but their joint effects have not been examined.
To quantify associations with PD for the individual, two-way and three-way combinations of these factors, a case-control association study with 1,186 PD patients and 928 controls was conducted.
Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding smoking, coffee, and NSAID consumption.
Smoking, coffee, and over the counter NSAID use as individual factors exhibited significantly reduced risks of 20% to 30%.
The two-way and three-way combinations were associated with risk reduction of 37% to 49%, and 62%, respectively.
Smoking and coffee exhibited significant inverse risk trends with increasing cumulative exposures, suggesting dose-response relations.
With respect to the combination of all three exposures, persons who were at the highest exposure strata for smoking and coffee and used NSAIDs had an estimated 87% reduction in risk (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.06-0.29).
Whether this finding reflects true biologic protection needs to be investigated.